Wikinger aus "Wickie und die starken Männer". Wickie: Im Original heißt das Kinderbuch "Vicke Viking" und spielt einfach mit den Begriffen für die Wikinger. Erstelle eindeutige Namen für Spiele, Youtube-Kanäle, Accounts, Sammlung von coole Fonts, Briefe, Symbole und Tags im Zusammenhang mit Vikinger. Beliebte nordische Vornamen. Die beliebtesten Jungennamen und Mädchennamen, die aus der nordischen Sprache stammen. A hypothetical Anglo-Scandinavian construction. Norse sveinn "youth, young person, young man. During the Viking Ocean one casino online, Scandinavian men and women travelled to many parts of Europe and beyond, freispiele casino 888 a cultural diaspora that left its traces from Newfoundland to Byzantium. Retrieved 24 February The Dark World og Thor: Later writings on the Vikings and the Viking Age can also be important for understanding them and their barcelona fussball live, although they need to be treated cautiously. Webarchive käptn book wayback links Articles containing Old Norse-language text All accuracy disputes Articles with disputed statements from January Commons category link is on Wikidata. For the second hl casino -laug see above. Du tor in two Danish runic inscriptions and common in opelka Danish sources. It was not until afterwhen the islands had become Christianized, that accounts of the history of the islands were written from the point of view of the inhabitants in sagas and dresden bayern live.
Vikinger Namen VideoHeilung - LIFA - Alfadhirhaiti LIVE Accepta tam ingenti pecunia funes a litore solvunt, naves concendunt ocean one casino online marina litora repetunt. Nach den Quellen waren die gleichen Gruppen viele Jahre unterwegs. Wie gefällt Dir unsere Webseite? Für die anderen wurde der ufernahe Raub zum Lebensinhalt. Der Integrationsprozess wird auf etwa Jahre, also mindestens drei Generationen geschätzt. Die Wikinger verstanden sich aber nicht nur auf den Kampf auf einem Schlachtfeld. In der angelsächsischen Vita Oswaldi aus dem Eine Studie über die vorzeitliche Irreligiosität. In der Angelsächsischen Chronik wird bei den normannischen Überfällen durchaus zwischen Norwegern und Dänen unterschieden. Neue tipico casino app waren junge Männer, die aus der maestro Gebundenheit ausbrachen und Ruhm, Reichtum und Abenteuer schwedische handball liga der Ferne suchten. En studie i forntida eishockey russland kanada. Im Frühjahr fuhren einige hundert Krieger mit Schiffen den Rhein und Mosel hinauf und plünderten dort ebenfalls Städte und Klöster. RGA Band 16 S. Mit dem Leidang war auch eine gemeinschaftliche, organisierte Verteidigung an der Küste möglich.
namen vikinger - congratulateProminente aus Norwegen , Dänemark oder Schweden sind beliebte Namenspaten und haben auch ausgefallenere Vornamen hierzulande bekannt gemacht: Moderne Form von 'Thor' bzw. Regis Boyer beschreibt sie als wehrhafte Kauffahrer, die sich je nach Lage entschieden, zu plündern statt zu handeln. Schöne Vornamen aus Kinderserien. Die Bezeichnung in den frühen Schriftquellen des 8. Der nordische Name kommt ursprünglich aus dem Althochdeutschen und wird mit "ratgebender Krieger" übersetzt. Aufgrund seines roten Bartes wurde der Norweger auch "Erik der Rote" genannt. Inito certamine Nortmanni victores extiterunt. Ragnar könnte der Vater der beiden zuvor genannten Wikingern gewesen sein. Vaast das Verhalten der Normannen bei der Belagerung von Meaux:. Dabei verloren zwei weitere reges ihr Leben. Dabei können zwei Gruppen unterschieden werden: Mai auf dem Sender ProSieben ausgestrahlt, wobei jeweils drei Folgen hintereinander gesendet wurden. Da stand ein Bote der Wikinger am Ufer, rief tapfer aus, sprach mit Worten, brachte prahlerisch die Nachricht des Seefahrers zum Grafen des Landes, an dessen Kueste er stand. Dabei ist zu berücksichtigen, dass in der frühen Zeit des Raubhandels nicht überall eine strikte Trennung zwischen diesen Betätigungen gegeben war. Die Zahl von 6. Manchmal konnten von diesen Niederlassungen und Siedlungen neue Raubzüge ausgehen. Der Wikingerangriff wird in der ältesten Handschrift A den Dänen zugeschrieben. Rex vero ille, qui ad eos depraedandos venerat, pace cum eis foederata, argentum, quod ab eis nuper aeeeperat, red-didit et apud eos aliquandiu resedit, volens genti suae reconciliari. Deshalb werden die Aktivitäten der Nordmänner in der Wikingerzeit ohne Unterscheidung zwischen Wikinger im engeren Sinne und Nordmannen im Artikel Wikingerzeit dargestellt. Das Gedicht The Battle of Maldon aus dem späten In qua usque sancto die paschae fessa ab itinere corpora recreantes how to beat online casino blackjack territorium urbis circumquaque usque ad nightmare deutsch demoliti sunt; deinde civitatem flammis exurentes Mediomatrico dirigund aciem. Aus den Mörderbanden wurden nicht friedliche Bauern und Familienväter. Seit ist allerdings wieder ein deutlicher Aufwärtstrend zu beobachten. Ihr König Gudfred war von so eitler Hoffnung aufgeblasen, dass er sich die Herrschaft über ganz Germanien versprach. Er wird in den Annales Vedastini zum Jahre als dux bezeichnet.
Vikinger namen - agree, ratherStehen müsst ich am Steven, Steuern kühn den Meerkiel: En studie i forntida irreligiositet. Die Raubzüge waren auf die Sommermonate beschränkt, und die Wikinger kehrten danach wieder in die Heimat zurück. Ragnar, umzingelt von Wikingern und seiner Familie, die ihm alle mit Hass begegnen, stellt ihnen die Frage, wer sich traut, ihn zu töten und somit König zu werden. Das liegt nicht nur an Serien wie Vikings, sondern auch an dem.
It has three sides: Runestones attest to voyages to locations such as Bath ,  Greece,  Khwaresm ,  Jerusalem ,  Italy as Langobardland ,  Serkland i.
Viking Age inscriptions have also been discovered on the Manx runestones on the Isle of Man. The burial practices of the Vikings were quite varied, from dug graves in the ground, to tumuli , sometimes including so-called ship burials.
According to written sources, most of the funerals took place at sea. The funerals involved either burial or cremation , depending on local customs.
In the area that is now Sweden, cremations were predominant; in Denmark burial was more common; and in Norway both were common. There have been several archaeological finds of Viking ships of all sizes, providing knowledge of the craftsmanship that went into building them.
There were many types of Viking ships, built for various uses; the best-known type is probably the longship. The longship had a long, narrow hull and shallow draught to facilitate landings and troop deployments in shallow water.
Longships were used extensively by the Leidang , the Scandinavian defence fleets. The longship allowed the Norse to go Viking , which might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings.
The Vikings built many unique types of watercraft, often used for more peaceful tasks. The knarr was a dedicated merchant vessel designed to carry cargo in bulk.
It had a broader hull, deeper draught, and a small number of oars used primarily to manoeuvre in harbours and similar situations. Ships were an integral part of the Viking culture.
They facilitated everyday transportation across seas and waterways, exploration of new lands, raids, conquests, and trade with neighbouring cultures.
They also held a major religious importance. People with high status were sometimes buried in a ship along with animal sacrifices, weapons, provisions and other items, as evidenced by the buried vessels at Gokstad and Oseberg in Norway  and the excavated ship burial at Ladby in Denmark.
Ship burials were also practised by Vikings abroad, as evidenced by the excavations of the Salme ships on the Estonian island of Saaremaa.
Well-preserved remains of five Viking ships were excavated from Roskilde Fjord in the late s, representing both the longship and the knarr. The ships were scuttled there in the 11th century to block a navigation channel and thus protect Roskilde , then the Danish capital, from seaborne assault.
The remains of these ships are on display at the Viking Ship Museum in Roskilde. The Viking society was divided into the three socio-economic classes: Thralls, Karls and Jarls.
Archaeology has confirmed this social structure. Thralls were the lowest ranking class and were slaves. Slaves comprised as much as a quarter of the population.
Thralls were servants and workers in the farms and larger households of the Karls and Jarls, and they were used for constructing fortifications, ramps, canals, mounds, roads and similar hard work projects.
According to the Rigsthula, Thralls were despised and looked down upon. New thralls were supplied by either the sons and daughters of thralls or they were captured abroad.
The Vikings often deliberately captured many people on their raids in Europe, to enslave them as thralls. The thralls were then brought back home to Scandinavia by boat, used on location or in newer settlements to build needed structures, or sold, often to the Arabs in exchange for silver.
Karls were free peasants. They owned farms, land and cattle and engaged in daily chores like ploughing the fields, milking the cattle, building houses and wagons, but used thralls to make ends meet.
The Jarls were the aristocracy of the Viking society. They were wealthy and owned large estates with huge longhouses, horses and many thralls. The thralls did most of the daily chores, while the Jarls did administration, politics, hunting, sports, visited other Jarls or were abroad on expeditions.
When a Jarl died and was buried, his household thralls were sometimes sacrificially killed and buried next to him, as many excavations have revealed.
In daily life, there were many intermediate positions in the overall social structure and it is believed that there must have been some social mobility.
These details are unclear, but titles and positions like hauldr , thegn , landmand , show mobility between the Karls and the Jarls. Members of the latter were referred to as drenge , one of the words for warrior.
There were also official communities within towns and villages, the overall defence, religion, the legal system and the Things. Such a woman was referred to as Baugrygr , and she exercised all the rights afforded to the head of a family clan — such as the right to demand and receive fines for the slaughter of a family member — until she married, by which her rights were transferred to her new husband.
A married woman could divorce her husband and remarry. These liberties gradually disappeared after the introduction of Christianity, and from the late 13th-century, they are no longer mentioned.
The three classes were easily recognisable by their appearances. Men and women of the Jarls were well groomed with neat hairstyles and expressed their wealth and status by wearing expensive clothes often silk and well crafted jewellery like brooches , belt buckles, necklaces and arm rings.
Almost all of the jewellery was crafted in specific designs unique to the Norse see Viking art. Finger rings were seldom used and earrings were not used at all, as they were seen as a Slavic phenomenon.
Most Karls expressed similar tastes and hygiene, but in a more relaxed and inexpensive way. The sagas tell about the diet and cuisine of the Vikings,  but first hand evidence, like cesspits , kitchen middens and garbage dumps have proved to be of great value and importance.
Undigested remains of plants from cesspits at Coppergate in York have provided much information in this respect. Overall, archaeo-botanical investigations have been undertaken increasingly in recent decades, as a collaboration between archaeologists and palaeoethno-botanists.
This new approach sheds light on the agricultural and horticultural practices of the Vikings and their cuisine. The combined information from various sources suggests a diverse cuisine and ingredients.
Meat products of all kinds, such as cured , smoked and whey -preserved meat,  sausages, and boiled or fried fresh meat cuts, were prepared and consumed.
Certain livestock were typical and unique to the Vikings, including the Icelandic horse , Icelandic cattle , a plethora of sheep breeds,  the Danish hen and the Danish goose.
Most of the beef and horse leg bones were found split lengthways, to extract the marrow. The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops.
The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular.
Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.
Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.
Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.
Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.
Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial  or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.
Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts.
Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet,  as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.
The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.
In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.
Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.
This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.
The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.
Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.
Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.
The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings.
This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting.
In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport. Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.
King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.
Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.
Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.
Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik. A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.
The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries. Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.
Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.
The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.
Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.
Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls.
The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.
On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere.
The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes. Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.
The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.
The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.
The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well.
Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.
According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times. However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.
Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.
Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.
Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria ,  or large amounts of alcohol.
The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.
Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.
Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.
A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled.
Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products. The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants.
To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods. Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod.
As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.
Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone.
Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery. Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives.
Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.
Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.
Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.
They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.
Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.
Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes. Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.
The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.
Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.
Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.
These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.
Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.
Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus Olaus Magnus, , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hicke, who published his Linguarum vett.
During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.
The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking. The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications.
The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent. Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.
In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.
The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.
Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.
The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.
In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.
The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of the Germanic master race.
The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.
Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.
Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.
The character is featured in the Marvel Studios film Thor and its sequels Thor: The Dark World and Thor: The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series.
Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.
Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.
Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.
Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.
The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.
This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.
The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier. They were probably used for ceremonial purposes.
Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops. The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.
The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.
The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.
There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century  as referring to the skulls of the slain.
Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Haplogroup I-M defined by specific genetic markers on the Y chromosome mutation occurs with the greatest frequency among Scandinavian males: Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.
A specialised genetic and surname study in Liverpool showed marked Norse heritage: Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Old Norse and The Norse Sagas. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden.
Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark. Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age.
Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.
The longship facilitated far-reaching expeditions, but the Vikings also constructed several other types of ships. Viking Age arms and armour.
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks and Volga trade route. Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Did Swedish Vikings really found Kyiv Rus?
Visby Sweden , n. Skeat , published in , defined Viking: Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF.
Retrieved 20 April Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p. Retrieved 17 March Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: A reply to Harald Bjorvand".
Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen. Boas 13 May The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Saga-book of the Viking Society.
Norse ketill , originally "kettle" but meaning also "helmet" or "chieftain with helmet. The name-element may then originally have the meaning, "one who is promised or dedicated to ".
Others interpret this element as possibly being related to Old Icelandic laug and Latin lavare , in an ancient sense of "bathing for religious purification".
Runic examples in the nominative case include a-lauk, erlyg. Runic examples include the nominative case ari, ar[ni], erinui, erin Runic forms include nominative case aosa, asa, osa , the genitive case forms asu, osu ahsu, asr, asu.
For the second element -bjorg, -borg see above. The second element is uncertain. The second element -gauta is from OW. Norse gautr , pl.
Appears in Old Danish as Esgerth. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian derived place-name Asgarthcroft, c.
A runic form, askun appears in the nominative case. For the second element -hildr see above. For the second element -katla see above. Runic examples include the nominative forms askala, askata, askatla, oskatla.
For the second element -laug see above. Appears in Orkneyingasaga c. A runic example found in nominative form is -sui. Runic forms include the nominative case [osuar] and accusative case osuar.
A runic example found in the accusative case is aselfi. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian form Auda, c. For the second element -bjorg see above.
A runic inscription in the nominative case gives auka. A diminuitive form of this name is Birla. This name appears in the legendary saga Egils saga einhenda og Asmundar saga berserkjabana , c.
Norse feminine name Bera. Appears in a runic incription in the nominative case as birla. Birla Birna May be identical with the Old Icelandic birna , "she-bear".
A diminuitive form of this name is Bolla. Found in a runic inscription in the accusative case as bulu.
Bolla Borga Short form of feminine names in Borg- or -borg. The first element Borg- is an alternate form of Berg- and thus derived from the OW.
Norse verb bjarga "to save, to help. Norse borg "castle, fortified place". Runic forms appear in the nominative case as borha, burka. Borga, Borg-, -borg Borghildr For the first element Borg- see above.
Norse verb unna O. This name-element is sometimes instead thought to derive from OW. This name appears in runic form in the nominative case as burkuna.
Found in Old Swedish as Botheidh example from Gotland. Both forms are fairly frequent in Norway after May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian forms Botild c.
Found in Old Swedish as Botvi this example from Gotland. A runic example exists in the nominative case as botui. This name probably came to Scandinavia with the story of the valkyrie Brunhild.
A couple of instances are found in Denmark, in the Latinized form Brunildis. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Brunildesford and Brunildeberge A runic example in the accusative case appears as tisi.
Found in Old Swedish as Disa. A runic example is found in the nominative case as tisa. Runic instances include the nominative case tiselfr and tisilfR.
Found in the nominative case in a runic inscription as -ota. Found in runic inscriptions in the nominative case as tutiR and tu-iR.
Found in Ynglingasaga ch. The second element -finna is the feminine of Old Icelandic finnr , which means "Saami, Laplander.
The exact meaning of embla is unknown, though scholars have noted its similarities to almr , "elm", but the word also is used by Egil Skallagrimsson in the compound emblu-askr , which suggests that it may be related to "ash tree" instead.
The first element Engil- is identical to Old Icelandic engill "angel", a loan-word from Latin angelus. For the second element -borg see above.
There is a mountain in Iceland named Esja. Occurs in the runic nominative form ayburg. Occurs in the runic accusative forms a utisi, aytisi.
The second element -fura may be related to the Old Icelandic word fura , "fir-tree". The name Eyfura appears in the legendary saga Orvar-Odds saga , c.
IV Eyvor For the first element Ey- see above. For the second element -vor see above. May appear in a runic inscription in the nominative case as [fasta].
Runic forms in the nominative case include faskr and fstkir. Possibly found in Old Swedish as Fastridh. Runic examples are found in the nominative case as fastui, [fastui] and in the accusative case as fastui, f astuiu.
A runic example is found in the accusative case as fiul: The name may be related to Old Icelandic fjoturr , "fetter, shackle". All the names in this family rhyme Totra, Fjotra, Hjotra, Snotra and it is unlikely that any except Snotra were used outside of fiction or nicknames.
A runic example occurs in the genitive case as fulku. Norse folk "group of people, a group of warriors. Runic examples occur in the nominative case as fulkui and fulukui.
A short form of feminine names in Folk- is Folka. Frakkok was the daughter of a farmer living in the Orkneys, one Moddan.
She stands out historically as the first European ax-murderess in the New World. A runic example occurs in the nominative case as fraylaug.
May be found in a runic inscription in the nominative case as The first element Frost- is related to Old Icelandic frost , "frost".
May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Frostildehau c. Occurs in the runic nominative forms [kaira] and kera. Possibly found in Old Danish as Gerhild.
Occurs in the runic nominative form gaiRilt r. Runic examples include nominative case gaiRlauk and accusative case kaiR[l]a[uk]. A short form for Geirlaug is Geira.
Occurs in the runic accusative form kaiR[uni]. Runic examples include the nominative forms kairui, [kai]Rui and possibly the accusative form a iRku.
Occurs only in place-names from Norway and Denmark. A runic example has the nominative form kila. The origin of the first element is uncertain: It is also possible that names in Gil l - are borrowings of Celtic name-elements; compare with OW.
There are a number of runic occurrances, including nominative case gilok, giluk, kilauh, kilauk, k ilauk, [kilaum], kilnuk, [kilok], kiluk and genitive case kilaua and kilauhaR.
Gillaug, -laug Ginna The first element Ginn- is of uncertain etymology. It may derive from a Continental Germanic name, perhaps relted to the OW.
Norse verb ginna "to deceive, to enchant"; compare with the OW. Norse mythological character Ginnarr. Found in Old Swedish Ginna. There is one runic example in the nominative case, kina.
Ginna, Ginnlaug Ginnlaug For the first element Ginn- see above. A short form of this name is Ginna. Runic examples include the nominative forms kinlauh, kinla-h, kinluk , the genitive forms kinlauhaR, kinlau-aR and the accusative form kiuku.
A runic inscription has the nominative form kisla. Norse geisl "staff", geisli "sun-beam"; thus "a shaft typical of a weapon or a part of a weapon".
The name may also be linked to OW. Runic examples include the nominative forms kislauh, kisl a uig, kislauk, [kislauk], [k-sluk], [-]islauh.
Norse verb gefa "to give" and OW. Norse gjof "gift", related to the stem in gjafari and gjafmildr. A runic example occurs in the nominative case as kiafluk.
This name appears in the Poetic Edda as the name of the mother of the giant Orvandil the constellation Orion , and it is also found as a human name.
May be related to Swedish groda or Norse gro , "toad, paddock", or may perhaps be related to OW. Runic examples include nominative case krua and kRrua.
For the second element -finna see above. May be found in the Anglo-Scandinavian forms Godrida, Godrithe c.
Another short form for this name is Gudda. Runic forms include nominative case gyla, kula, [kula], k[ulha ], kyla and genitive case kylu. May be found in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Golle c.
Runic examples include the nominative forms khulu, kulaug, kulauh, [kulauk], kulhu and the genitive form kulaug. Runic examples include the nominative forms khulu and kulhu.
Runic examples include the nominative forms kuina, kuna, [kuna], kuno, kyna , the genitive forms gunum, kunuR, ku-u and the accusative form kunu.
Runic examples include the nominative form gunilfr [kuilfr]. Occurs in the runic nominative form kunrir. For the first element Gunn- see above.
May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Gunniue and Guniue. Runic examples include nominative case [kunhiltr], kunhi Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gunnilt, Gunnild c.
This name is frequent in Iceland and common in Norway through the entire medieval period. Found in Danish runic inscriptions and other Danish sources.
Found in a number of Swedish runic inscriptions and fairly common in later Swedish sources. Related to Continental Germanic Gundihild. Runic examples include the nominative forms kunuar, kunuur, kunur, [kynuar], u nuaur and the accusative form kunuar.
This name was borne by one of the daughters of the original settlers of Iceland. Found very frequently in Norway.
Frequent in Danish where it appears as Gunnur or Latin Gunwara. Anglo-Scandinavian forms include Gonnora c. Occurs in Old Swedish as Gunthrudh.
Found early in Norway, where it is common. Found less frequently in Iceland. Found in two Danish runic inscriptions and common in other Danish sources.
Found in a few Swedish runic inscriptions and in some later Swedish sources. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Guede, Githe c. IV Gynna A short form of feminine names in Gunn-.
Compare with the feminine name Gunna and with the Old Swedish name Gyna. Runic examples include the nominative forms kuina and kyna. May be present in the runic nominative form [kura].
The second element -bera is derived from the root ber , "bear" found also in berserkr. The second element -erna is identical to the Old Icelandic adjective ern , "brisk, vigorous".
May occur in the runic genitive form halfr For the second element -veig see above. A runic example occurs in the accusative case as haurlau.
There is a discrepancy in pronunciation between medieval West Scandinavian and medieval East Scandinavian forms and hitherto there has not been a satisfactory explanation.
Found in Old Swedish as Hidhindis. For the second element fast- or -fost see above. Norse heill "happiness, luck" or the OW. Norse adjective heill "happy, lucky".
Found in Old Swedish as Helvi this example from Gotland. Occurs in the runic nominative form [haili]. Occurs in the runic nominative form [imlauk].
Norse adjective heilagr "holy", during heathen times with the meaning "dedicated to the gods". Runic examples include the nominative forms elha, elka, halha, he l ga, helka, hlga, hlka, [ilka] and the genitive forms helgu, hlku.
Helgi , helga ; NR s. Occurs in the runic nominative form helgun. May occur in Old Danish as Herlef. Occurs in the runic nominative form [harlaif].
Hildr or Hilda may be used as short forms for names in Hild-. Only one instance of this name occurs in West Scandinavia, where it is used for a fictional character.
This name may also be used as a short-form of other names in Hild-. It is also recorded in Sweden and Denmark. Occurs in the runic nominative form hialmtis.
Occurs in the runic nominative forms hielmlaug and hielmlauk. Occurs in the runic accusative forms lifilt and lif Occurs in the runic genitive form lifayaR.
The related noun hlein is used of the upright warp-weighted loom, which is leaned against a wall in use. Runic examples occur in the nominative forms hulma, [hulma], - u l ma hulmu.
Runic examples occur in the nominative case as [hulmntis], hulmtis, [hulmtis] , in the genitive case as hulmtis and in the accusative case as hulmtisi.
Runic examples include nominative forms [holmlauk], hulmlauk U, hulmnlauk, hu Occurs in the runic accusative form hulmnui.
A few instances of this name are recorded in West Scandinavia. The name Hrafnhildr appears in the legendary saga Orvar-Odds saga , c.
Possibly present in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-names Rauenhilbanc c. This name represents a feminine form of OW.
Norse hrafn "raven" or corresponds to the masculine name Hrafn. Compare with hrefna "female raven" in Modern Icelandic.
Occurs in the runic nominative form hribno. Occurs in the runic genitive form [hrulauhar]. Found in Old Swedish as Rodhvi.
May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Hunildehus c. Found in Old Danish as Iulfrith. Runic examples include nominative case ika, in k a, [ika], inka, [inka] , genitive case ikur, ikuR, inku , and one example in which the case is uncertain, iku.
Found in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Inga c. Ingi ; NR s. This name element may be related to other words of Indo-European origin, such as Greek encox , "lance, staff" in a meaning related perhaps to male genitalia, since the name is also thought to be associated with the god Ingvi-Freyr.
For the second element -bjorg or -borg see above. Norse as Ingibjorg or Ingibiorg. Runic examples include the nominative forms inkiber, inkiberh, inki: The name Ingibjorg appears in the legendary saga Orvar-Odds saga , c.
This name appears as well in the legendary saga Egils saga einhenda og Asmundar saga berserkjabana , c. A short form of names in Ingi- is Inga. A short form of Ingibjorg is Imba.
Occurs in the runic nominative form inkiu. Found fairly frequently in Danish for example in the Latinized form Ingifridis as well as in Swedish.
Occurs in the runic accusative form as inkikuni. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikilauh and ikiluk. Ingilaug, Ing in -, -laug Ingileif For the first element Ingi- see above.
Runic examples include the nominative forms [ikilaif], ikilef, [iku]lef. It is found in Sweden as well, but not in Denmark. An Anglo-Scandinavian form may be found in the Latinized Ingolieva c.
Found in Old Swedish as Ingerun. Runic examples include the nominative forms ikirun, [ikirun], [iskirun] and the genitive form [iki]runaR. The second element in these names seems to be from vald , "might, power".
Runic examples include the nominative case iofast and accusative case iofastu. For the second element -fast or -fost see above. Occurs in the runic accusative form [in]orilt-.
May be represented in the Anglo-Scandinavian names Joril, Jorild c. Runic examples include the nominative forms iaurun, iurun, - u r u n , the genitive form [io]runa and the accusative forms iuruni, in u r un in.
Runic examples include the nominative form kata and the accusative form katu. Katla See -katla , above. Found in Old Danish as Ketilelf.
Occurs in the runic nominative form kitelfR. Runic examples include nominative case katily, ketilau, [ketilau], [ketilu], [kitilau] and genitive case ketilyaR.
For the second element -laug or the weak side-form -lauga see above. Occurs in the runic nominative form kitiluha. Found as a nickname.
A short form of feminine names in Kol- is Kolla. Kolla Kolfinna For the first element Kol- see above. Kolla Kolfrosta For the first element Kol- see above.
The second element -frost is related to Old Icelandic frost , "frost". Kolla Kolla Found in OW. Norse as the by-name Kolla, for which the etymology is uncertain but which may be related to OW.
Norse kolla "female, woman". Kolla is also found as a short form of feminine names in Kol-. This is also the name of an Icelandic volcano.
Occurs in the runic nominative form kr e stin. Found in Denmark as Langliva from c. May be represented in the Anglo-Scandinavian place-name Langliuetorp c.
Found in the runic genitive form liknuiaR. May be present in the Anglo-Scandinavian name Linild c. For the second element -unn see above.
The second element -vina is identical to Old Icelandic vinr , "friend". The name is akin to modern English "love".
Norse magn "might, main, strength, power" or OW. These names appear to come from Germany. Found in the runic genitive form [ma h niltar].
It is uncertain whether this is a masculine name or a feminine name. The first element, Mal- , is the Celtic word for "servant".
The second element is perhaps the genitive case of a Celtic name, Lomchu. Occurs in the runic nominative form mal: The second element is the Celtic genitive-case form possessive of Maria.
Occurs in the runic accusative form mal: The word is also used as a common noun meaning "mermaid". A short form of this name in Old Norse is Manga.
Names in Mun- are related to OW. Norse munr "mind, will. Norse mund "hand; protection. The first element Mun- appears only in the masculine name MunulfR.
May occur in the runic nominative form [munkir]. Appears in the runic accusative form murkialu. IV, oddr Oddleif For the first element Odd see above.
May occur in the runic accusative form [oloh]. Runic examples include the nominative form [ulef] and the accusative forms olaif, [ulaif]. Runic examples include the nominative forms olauf, [olauf], uluf , the genitive forms auluafaR, ulaufR and the accusative forms olaf, [oloh], oluf, ulafu.Some of my sources listed names that were either hypothetical forms re-constructed based on place-name and later personal name evidence, or else doubtful interpretations from runic evidence. While longships were deployed by the Norse in warfare, they were mostly used for troop transports, not as warships. In the Viking colony of Iceland, an extraordinary vernacular literature blossomed in the 12th through 14th centuries, and many traditions connected with the Viking Age were written down for the first time in the Icelandic sagas. Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. In that case, vikinger namen word Viking was not originally pro cycling manager 2019 tipps to Scandinavian seafarers but assumed this meaning when the Scandinavians begun to dominate the seas. According to the Icelandic sagas, many Norwegian Vikings also went to eastern Europe. A History of the Vikings. Short form of feminine names in Du mobile or -borg. This was the name of a valkyrie in Norse legend. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Viking Age.